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Bhutan has rich and diverse flora and fauna with over 70 percent forest coverage and wide range of altitude and climate. Forest types include Fir forests, mixed conifer forest blue pine, Chirpine forest, and broad leaf mixed with conifer, upland hardwood forest, lowland hardwood and tropical lowland forests.

Bhutan can be divided into three ecological zones:
  • The southern foothills, which is situated in Subtropical Zone (150m to 2000m) with Tropical or Subtropical vegetation.
  • The Temperate Zone (2000 to 4000m) with conifer or broad leaf forests covers most parts of the country; and
  • The Alpine Zone (4000m and above) with no forest cover, at the northern Himalayan regions.

Over 60 percent of the common plant species of the Eastern Himalayas are found in Bhutan. The forest type consists of mixed conifer forest, fir forest chirpine forest, blue pine forest, broadleaf mixed with conifers, tropical lowland forests, lowland hardwood forest and upland hardwood forest. Bhutan has a very rich species of flora ranging from altitudes as low as 200m to as high as 4000m.

Over 5500 species of vascular plants have been recorded till date including 46 species of Rhododendrons and 369 species of Orchids. The Bhutan Himalayas is also important source of valuable medicinal plants used in ayurvedic medicine so much so that a National Institute of Traditional Medicine has been established at Thimphu. High altitude in Bhutan is home to animals like Snow leopard, blue sheep, red panda, tiger, takin, marmot and musk deer. Temperate zone fauna include Tiger, leopard, goral, gray langur, Himalayan black beer, red panda, sambur, wild pig, and barking deer.

The tropical forests in the south have tiger, clouded leopard, elephants, one horned Rhinoceros, water buffalo, golden langur, gaur, swamp deer, hog deer horn bills etc. Black necked crane, Green-backed tit, Plumbeous water Red start and Oriental Turtle Dove are some of the popular birds found in Bhutan

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